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Why are mangroves such important ecosystems?

Why are mangroves such important ecosystems?

Coral reefs get much more attention than mangroves, but this ecosystem is just as important and is in fact one that helps the coral reef to flourish. This is because the two tend to work in harmony, with the mangrove preventing sediment from the land being washed onto the reef and smothering it. In return, the reef prevents the coastal areas where mangroves grow from being eroded by the sea.

What are mangroves?

Mangroves are a type of forest that grow in coastal areas in tropical parts of the world. What is unusual about them is that the roots are bedded in soft soil, which is flooded twice a day by the tide, meaning the trees have adapted to grow in salt water. It is magnificent to see these impressive plants coming out of the sea in a way that appears to defy logic.

Are all mangroves the same?

The trees that grow in mangroves are incredibly hard and resistant to rot, but they are not all the same. There are around 50 different species of mangrove spread across the world, each able to cope with the specific climatic conditions and salinity of the water in which they live. The most common types of mangrove are red, black and white.

Why are mangroves so important?

This type of ecosystem is important in a number of ways. The first is that it acts as a carbon sinkhole, capturing twice as much carbon dioxide as any other ecosystem found on the planet. This is vital for the health of plants, animals and humans.

Many different types of creatures live in mangroves, with the protected nature of life among the roots perfect for young fish to grow. The nursery areas allow them a good start without having to face the open sea and possibly see populations decimated. In areas next to coral reefs where mangroves have not been cut down, the reefs have 25 times more fish, a recent study cited by the Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) shows.

Coastal erosion can be a huge problem and some places do not realise what an important job mangroves are doing until it is gone. The dense root systems associated with mangroves prevent sediment from draining away and protect the shoreline from waves and storms. Typhoons and hurricanes can have a much more damaging effect on areas where mangroves have been cleared.

Life found in mangroves

So much life is sustained by mangroves, from the tiny organisms that live attached to the trunks and branches of the trees to reptiles and birds. It depends on the part of the world as to what can be found, but the variety and vulnerability of these creatures is staggering.

Some of the species under threat that call mangroves home, include the dugong, which lives in the waters between East Africa and Vanuatu. This marine mammal resembles an elephant and is listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. Its main diet is seagrass, but jellyfish and squid are sometimes also consumed by these creatures.

The only known examples of the pygmy three-toed sloths left in the world are found within the mangrove swamps of Isla Escudo de Veraguas, off the coast of Panama. This critically endangered species is the smallest variety of sloth in the world and lives in the red mangrove forests of the island, eating the plant's leaves. There are thought to be less than 500 of these sloths left.

Characterised by their large noses, the proboscis monkey favours the coastal forests of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia. The clearing of mangroves is particularly disastrous for this endangered creature, which only has a few thousand currently surviving in the wild.

Once the tide goes out in the mangroves of Papua New Guinea and parts of Australia, the water mouse goes scavenging among the routes for crabs and molluscs to feast on. Little is known about this nocturnal rodent, apart from the fact that it requires mangroves to live and the vulnerable population is declining.

Twice the size of a domestic feline, the fishing cat lives in areas of wetland across Asia. As its main diet is fish, mangroves are its primary habitat and overfishing can make life very difficult for these animals. The IUCN categorises the species as endangered and they are an incredible creature to spot in the wild.

While the endangered Bengal tiger can live in a number of different types of tropical forest, mangroves are among these. In fact, one of the most famous areas of the world for viewing tigers is the Sundarbans, which is the biggest block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest found anywhere in the world.

The mangrove finch is critically endangered and only found in the mangroves of Isabela Island in the Galapagos archipelago. There are no more than 200 mature males surviving in the wild, eating a diet of insects, larvae and spiders. Seeing one of these is a birdwatcher's dream.

How do humans rely on mangroves?

As well as being important coastal defences, humans take advantage of mangrove swamps in a variety of ways. Many indigenous groups use the exceptionally hard wood as a building material and for fuel, as well as collecting medicinal plants from the mangroves. As time goes on, some communities are moving away from the traditional uses, such as the people of the Maldives who used to make coir rope from the mangroves, which was incredibly tough, but this is dying out.

Instead mangroves are being commercially harvested for pulp, woodchip and charcoal production, but such unsustainable practices put the future of the forests at risk. The fish found in mangroves provides sustenance for many coastal communities and some enterprising individuals are using the favourable conditions to farm shrimp.

Are mangroves under threat?

According to the WWF, 35 per cent of the world's mangrove forests have already gone and the remaining areas are increasingly under threat. Issues that are prevalent include clearing to make way for agricultural land, destruction for firewood and other products and overfishing. Pollution, the changing sea levels due to climate change and the destruction of coral reefs can all also have a detrimental effect on mangroves.

Where in the world can you visit mangroves?

The Maldives is the perfect place to see mangroves, as it is made up of a series of low lying islands, which means there is a lot of coast and sections of mangrove. Only the coral reefs provide more richness of biodiversity in this part of the world than the mangroves. There is a constant battle between modernisation and the desire to protect these important ecosystems. By visiting the Maldives and seeing the mangroves firsthand, visitors can demonstrate how tourism can help preserve this important natural resource for the future.

Other destinations where there are good examples of mangroves include Belize, Madagascar and India. A visit to see these incredible ecosystems can often be added onto a wider expedition in a different part of the country. Mangroves are an absolute must for avid birdwatchers.

For more information please call: 01227 671 154

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