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Protected areas best defense against poachers for Indian Elephants new study states

Protected areas best defense against poachers for Indian Elephants new study states

Indian Elephants have been under the spotlight recently as a recent study has looked into the potential for creating ‘wildlife friendly’ zones to prevent conflicts between animals and humans. 

This followed recent news that two elephants were killed when they came into contact with electric wires erected by villagers in West Bengal, to the north of India, to protect rice paddy fields.

Annually, up to 300 people and 50 elephants are killed in clashes throughout India.  In a nine-month period, it was reported that 106 elephants have died in the state of Kerala alone. It has prompted discussions on human-animal conflict and potential solutions for the issue.

The issue was solidified by a study undertaken by Heritage Animal Task Force, who found that around 20 of the animals were in captivity. The rest were killed by poachers for their ivory. 

Endangered

Indian elephants are at extreme risk of extinction. Currently, it is estimated that there are approximately 25,000 elephants in the wild. This is 50\% less than 30 years ago. They became an endangered species in 1986 as a result of hunting. 

Further studies by the University of Florida and other institutions have been examining the habitats of elephants, with the aim of offering solutions to protect both these animals and humans that come into contact with them.

Two areas were brought forward; the aforementioned wildlife-friendly areas and the traditional protected zones. The friendly area methods were varied, including proposed digging of trenches and placement of solar fences around specific forest areas. Burning chillies was an option also brought forward by the groups. 

Other options have included wildlife-friendly farming projects that seek to integrate crop production and conservation. This would involve keeping pieces of natural vegetation for elephants inside crop areas. Additionally, the study looked at uses for land which separates wildlife. This involved monoculture plantations of rubber and cashew, community-managed forestry and even slash and burn shifting cultivation, all to prevent human-animal conflicts. 

However, the issue with these proposals is that they might prove viable but in practise the elephants used both, but preferred protected areas. 

Issue at hand

The head of India’s research and conservation projects on Asian elephants, Dr Varun Goswami recently spoke about the issue. 

He stated that while “..the benefits of extra space and food in ‘wildlife-friendly’ land uses outweigh the costs for some elephants, at the population level, our results suggest that the costs human presence outweigh the benefits. Elephants therefore avail of the wildlife-friendly land but restrict frequent and high density use to protected areas free of human presence."

He went on to add that “Development projects and land encroachment are only going to further eat into the already diminished habitats available to the Asian elephant today.”

The study, which has the lengthy title  'Community-managed forests and wildlife-friendly agriculture play a subsidiary but cannot substitute for protected areas for the endangered Asian elephant' is an eye-opening insight into the plight of the Indian elephant.

No mans land

Currently, less than 3\% of land in India falls under ‘protected’ status. However, other avenues to prevent further loss of life of both wildlife and humans are being attempted also. 

The World Land Trust have recently engaged in talks to buy land in the state of Uttarakhand. Here, the Chilikya-Kota elephant corridor would be able to have additional corridors that interconnect the Ramnagar Forest Division and Corbetter Tiger Reserve, creating a wildlife route. 

The Nokrek National Park and Balphakram National Park have now been secured as an elephant corridor also. The aim is educating the human population through facilitation of wildlife movement across areas dominated by people, such as railways, roadways and agricultural lands, the Wildlife Trust of India have been praised for their efforts in protection of Indian wildlife.

Indian elephants can spend around 20 hours a day feeding, whilst covering an area of 125 square miles wandering. 

The head of the Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animal, Maneka Gandhi, stated: “Elephants are almost extinct in India. I say this with great responsibility because we have less than 20,000 elephants.” 

For more information please call: 01227 671 154

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